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| Overview | | Validation Studies | | Rear Wing Analysis | | 3D Optimisation | | Redesign | | Front Wing Design | | Nonuniform Onset Flow |

An Example of NEWPAN F1 Racecar Front Wing Design

Flow Solutions' suite of products provides you with an integrated set of tools for the geometric modelling, analysis and redesign of assemblies such as the Formula One front wing presented here.

Firstly, we construct a panelled model of our wing assembly using the GEMS preprocessor. We are likely to import the surfaces from CAD and follow a similar procedure to that presented for an analysis of a rear wing. From GEMS we are able to run the NEWPAN panel method; the results are posted directly to the VIEWPAN postprocessor.

Use VIEWPAN's advanced visualisation options to understand the aerodynamic properties of the current design. For example, use the 3D Graph Viewer to visualise pressure distributions, and query the Spanwise Loadings across elements. Understand the boundary layer behaviour and flow attachment by visualising boundary layer states (laminar, turbulent, separated, bubble) along surface streamlines.

Click on any images in the following description for a more detailed view.
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Decide on our redesign strategy. In our case, we seem to be starting with a fairly well designed assembly which is not suffering unduly from flow separation at the design point. There is a significant drop in loading towards the tip; for sake of example we may wish to take a look at the redesign of an outboard section to address this. From VIEWPAN, we simply request NEWPAN2D to run a matched 3D analysis at an outboard station.

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We may choose to investigate increasing the chord, and incidence, of the outboard flap. Here we are using NEWPAN2D to rotate and scale the flap section. Visible is the old and new pressure distribution (negative Cp scale downwards) demonstrating the increase in loading we have achieved - in this case by stretching the flap profile by 25% along X, and rotating by 5 degrees to yield a similar incidence setting to the original.

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Let's investigate the behaviour of our redesigned assembly in more detail. We can apply strong viscous coupling to the redesign and examine the viscous boundary layer information in detail. Here is a view showing the mainplane and its wake with Cp and boundary layer (displacement) thickness plotted. Note the computation of the viscous shear layers into the wake (critical for multi-element assemblies). Similar examination of skin friction coefficients and boundary layer shape factors confirm a comfortable margin from separation.

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We may now like to refine the mainplane profile to tailor the adverse pressure gradient and lengthen the run of laminar flow; perhaps we can increase the length of the laminar rooftop, thereby increasing downforce with little or no increase in drag. At this stage we can employ the NEWPAN2D inverse design capabilities: here we are interactively prescribing a pressure distribution with a longer rooftop (we can view the consequent change to boundary layer properties simultaneously) and then simply requesting that NEWPAN2D computes the new mainplane profile required to achieve this. Typically the changes in profile are subtle; it is difficult if not impossible to achieve this result by manually editing the profile directly.

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With our redesigned mainplane and flap sections looking promising, we can export them directly to GEMS for integration into our new 3D wing assembly (customised functions assist with this). We may wish to continue with the redesign of several sections in NEWPAN2D. When we're ready, simply run NEWPAN from GEMS and verify the performance of our new design. Loop through another design cycle as necessary.

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